RSA‘s September 2013 Online Fraud Report discusses the improvement in cybercriminal skills and how education offered online with support of tutors, course work and counselling is increasing the threat to businesses and people alike.
RSA have seen an increase in ads by established criminals advertising courses they commonly carry out via Skype videoconferencing. To add value, “teachers” are offering interesting fraud courses, following those up with individual tutorials (Q&A sessions) after students join their so-called schools.
Fraud-as-a-Service (FaaS) strives to resemble legitimate business models, fraudster trade schools further offer ‘job placement’ for graduates through their many underground connections with other experienced criminals. Interestingly, some of the “teachers” go the extra mile and vouch for students who show “talent” so that they can join the underground communities they would otherwise not be able to access.
Some cybercrime professors even enforce a rigid absentee policy:
- Students must give a 2 hour advanced notice if they cannot attend.
- Students who fail to notify ahead of time are fined 50% of the fee, and rescheduled for the next class.
- Students who fail to pay absentee fees will forfeit the entire deposited fee.
The following section presents some examples of cybercrime schooling curriculums exposed by RSA fraud analysts.
Beginners’ cybercrime classes
The first level is designed for beginners, teaching the basics of online financial fraud. The Cybercrime Course Curriculum:
- The Business of Fraud – Credit cards, debit cards, drop accounts, how all it works, who are the clients, prices, risks
- Legal Aspects – How to avoid being caught by the authorities. What can be used against you in a court of law? Building Your Business Where to find clients? How to build a top-notch fraud service
- Transaction Security – How to avoid getting scammed and shady escrow services
- Price per lecture 2,500 Rubles (about $75 USD)
Courses in card fraud
Criminals further offer the much in demand payment card fraud classes – one course per payment card type. Card Fraud Course Curriculum:
- The Business – Drops, advertising, accomplices, chat rules and conventions
- Legal Security – Dealing with law enforcement: who is accountable for the crime in organized groups, what can be collected as evidence
- Building Your Business – Invaluable tips that will help develop your service to top level, and help acquire customers
- Security of Transactions – Common patterns of rippers/ripping, how to identify scams, how to use escrow services
- Price per lecture 2,500 Rubles (about $75 USD)
- Price per course 2,500 Rubles (about $75 USD) Both courses 4,000 Rubles (about $120 USD)
Anonymity and security course
Stressing the importance of avoiding detection and maintaining anonymity, this course teaches a fraudster the art of avoiding detection, and how to erase digital “fingerprints”. The tutoring vendor offers practical lessons in configuring a computer for complex security and anonymity features. This course includes a theoretical and a practical section, with a duration estimated at four hours. Anonymity Course Curriculum:
- Configuring and using Anonymity tools – Antivirus and firewall, Windows security(ports and ‘holes’), virtual keyboards, shutting off browser logging, eliminating history/traces on the PC, applications for permanent data removal, data encryption on the hard drive, Anonymizer applications, VPN – installation/configuration, using SOCKS – where to buy them, hiding one’s DNS server, dedicated servers, TOR browsers, safe email mailboxes, using disposable email, using a cryptic self-destruct flash drive, creating cryptic self-destruct notes, extra advanced topic – tools for remotely liquidating a hard drive
- Botnets – Independent study (online document/site link provided)
- Using Chat Channels – Using ICQ, Skype, Jabber, registering Jabber on a safe server, OTR/GPG encryption in a Jabber chat, passing a key and chatting on a secure channel via Jabber
- Legal – Electronic evidence one might be leaving behind, and that can be used against fraudsters by law enforcement
- Price per course – 3,300 Rubles (about $99 USD) $35 – additional charge for installing VPN
Mule Herding Course Curriculum:
- Theory section (2-3 hrs.) – Fundamentals – opening a mule-recruitment service, legal and practical security measures, finding accomplices and partners
- Practical section (3-5 hrs.) – Receive a prepared transaction to handle, and earn 10% on this initial transaction (if one succeeds). If the student fails, a second transaction will be offered, at a cost of 1,500 Rubles ($45 USD) and no percentage earned.
- Upon successful completion of the test, fraudsters receive official confirmation by public notice from the lecturer in the community. This part is only open to students who have completed the theory section, and have set up the anonymity and security tools and have the additional tools required for the transaction
One-on-one tutorials and consultations
With a money-back guarantee promised to students, one crime school offers personal one-on-one tutorials and problem solving sessions via Skype. Special tutorial topics:
- Banking and Credit Cards – “Black and white” credit, fake documents, banking algorithms and security measures (Russian Federation only)
- Debit Cards – The finer details of working with debit cards and setting up a service (Russian Federation only)
- Registering and using Shell Corporations – Legal issues and practical problems in using Shell Corporations for fraud (Russian Federation only)
- Legal Liability Issues – Your legal rights, practical advice on interaction with law enforcement agencies, counselling services even while under investigation (Russian Federation only)
- Setting up Anonymity – Practical help in setting up anonymity, and answers to questions from the course (any country)
- Price 2,000 Rubles (about $60) per hour
The school of carding
Approaching the subject that is highest in demand in the underground, vendors have opened schools for carding – teaching the different ways to use payment cards in fraud scenarios. One vendor offers classes on a daily basis, at two levels of expertise, and indicates that he gives his personal attention to each student. The vendor also assures his students that his resources (compromised data) are fresh, personally tested by him, and never before made available on any ‘public’ lists.
School of Carding – Basic Curriculum:
- Current Working BINs – Credit card BIN numbers that have been verified as successful in carding scenarios.
- Websites for Clothing, Electronics, etc. – Which merchants make the best targets for carding?
- Tips and Tricks – Extra insights from personal experience.
- Price $25 USD
School of Carding – Advanced Curriculum
- BINs and Banks – Recommended BIN numbers that give best results in carding
- Tested sites – A list of tested e-commerce sites recommended for carding clothing, electronic goods, and more.
Phishing Attacks per Month
RSA identified 33,861 phishing attacks launched worldwide in August, marking a 25% decrease in attack volume from July. Based on this figure, it is estimated phishing resulted in an estimated $266 million in losses to global organizations in August.
US Bank Types Attacked
U.S. nationwide banks remained the most targeted with two out of three phishing attacks targeted at that sector in August while U.S. regional banks saw an 8% increase in phishing attacks.
Top Countries by Attack Volume
The U.S. remained the most targeted country in August with 50% of the total phishing volume, followed by the UK, Germany and India which collectively accounted for approximately 30% of phishing volume.
Top Countries by Attacked Brands
In August, 26% of phishing attacks were targeted at brands in the U.S., followed by the UK, Australia and India.
Top Hosting Countries
Four out of every ten phishing attacks were hosted in the U.S. in August. Canada, the Netherlands and the UK collectively hosted 25% of phishing attacks.
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