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Brian Pennington

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Tor detections jump by more than 1,000%

Vectra Networks announced the results of the second edition of its “Post-Intrusion Report”, a real-world study about threats that evade perimeter defenses and what attackers do once they get inside your network.

Report data was collected over six-months from 40 customer and prospect networks with more than 250,000 hosts, and is compared to results in last year’s report. The new report includes detections of all phases of a cyber attack and exposes trends in malware behavior, attacker communication techniques, internal reconnaissance, lateral movement, and data exfiltration.

According to the report, there was non-linear growth in lateral movement (580%) and reconnaissance (270%) detections that outpaced the 97% increase in overall detections compared to last year. These behaviors are significant as they show signs of targeted attacks that have penetrated the security perimeter.

While command-and-control communication showed the least amount of growth (6%), high-risk Tor and external remote access detections grew significantly. In the new report, Tor detections jumped by more than 1,000% compared to last year and accounted for 14% of all command-and-control traffic, while external remote access shot up by 183% over last year.

The report is the first to study hidden tunnels without decrypting SSL traffic by applying data science to network traffic.

A comparison of hidden tunnels in encrypted traffic vs. clear traffic shows that HTTPS is favored over HTTP for hidden tunnels, indicating an attacker’s preference for encryption to hide their communications.

The increase in lateral movement and reconnaissance detections shows that attempts at pulling off targeted attacks continue to be on the rise,” said Oliver Tavakoli, Vectra Networks CTO. “The attackers’ batting average hasn’t changed much, but more at-bats invariably has translated into more hits

Key findings of the study include:

  • Botnet monetization behavior grew linearly compared to last year’s report. Ad click-fraud was the most commonly observed botnet monetization behavior, representing 85% of all botnet detections.
  • Within the category of lateral movement detections, brute-force attacks accounted for 56%, automated replication accounted for 22% and Kerberos-based attacks accounted for 16%. Although only the third most frequent detection, Kerberos-based attacks grew non-linearly by 400% compared to last year.
  • Of internal reconnaissance detections, port scans represented 53% while darknet scans represented 47%, which is fairly consistent with behavior detected last year.
  • Lateral-movement detections, which track the internal spread of malware and authentication-based attacks such as the use of stolen passwords, led the pack with over 34% of total detections.
  • Command and control detections, which identify a wide range of malicious communication techniques, were close behind with 32% of detections.
  • Botnet monetization detections track the various ways criminals make money from ad click-fraud, spamming behavior, and distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks. These botnet-related behaviors accounted for 18% of all detections.
  • The reconnaissance category looks for internal reconnaissance performed by an attacker already inside the network and represented 13% of detections.
  • Exfiltration detections look for the actual theft of data. The good news here is that it was by far the least common category of detection at 3%.

The data in the Post-Intrusion Report is based on metadata from Vectra customers and prospects who opted to share detection metrics from their production networks. Vectra identifies active threats by monitoring network traffic on the wire in these environments. Internal host-to-host traffic and traffic to and from the Internet are monitored to ensure visibility and context of all phases of an attack.

The latest report offers a first-hand analysis of active “in situ” network threats that bypass next-generation firewalls, intrusion prevention systems, malware sandboxes, host-based security solutions, and other enterprise defenses. The study includes data from 40 organizations in education, energy, engineering, financial services, government, healthcare, legal, media, retail, services, and technology.

The full report can be found here

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No such thing as hacker proof a Deloitte Infographic

Based on a study of global cyber activity, hackers continue to be responsible for the largest number of data breaches. The general trend of vulnerabilities that allow attackers to compromise availability, confidentiality, or integrity of a computer system is upward. For 2012, there were approximately 101 new vulnerabilities each week.

RSA’s June 2013 Online Fraud Report featuring the Bugat Trojan

RSA’s June 2013 Online Fraud Report delivers the results from RSA’s fraud monitoring centre, a summary of the report is below

RSA researchers analyzing Bugat Trojan attacks have recently learned that Bugat’s developers managed to develop and deploy mobile malware designed to hijack out-of-band authentication codes sent to bank customers via text messages.

Bugat (aka: Cridex) was discovered and sampled in the wild as early as August 2010. This privately owned crimeware’s earlier targets were business and corporate accounts, its operators attempting high-value transactions ($100K-$200K USD per day) in both automated and manual fraud schemes. It is very likely that Bugat’s operators started seeing a diminished ability to target high-value accounts due to added authentication challenges, forcing them to resort to developing a malware component that is already used by many mainstream banking Trojans in the wild.

Bugat joins the lineup of banking malware that makes use of SMS capturing mobiles apps. The first occurrences of such malware were observed in use by Zeus and SpyEye Trojan variants, which were respectively dubbed ZitMo and SPitMo (Zeus-in-the-Mobile, SpyEye-in-the-Mobile). In mid-2012, RSA coined the name CitMo to denote the Citadel breed of in-the-Mobile activity. The fourth Trojan for which malicious apps were discovered was Carberp in early 2013, and with this case, Bugat is the most recent banking Trojan to have its own SMS-forwarding app, now coined BitMo.

Among other banking Trojan features, Bugat comes with a set of HTML injections for online banking fraud and possesses Man-in-the-Browser script functionality. This very feature is what allows it to interact with victims in real time and lead them to download the BitMo mobile malware to their Android/BlackBerry/Symbian devices. iOs remains almost entirely exempt from this type of malware since the Apple policy limits app downloads from third party sites.

When Bugat infected online banking customers access their financial provider’s login page, the Trojan is triggered to dynamically pull a relevant set of injections from the remote server, displays them to the victim and leads them to the BitMo download under the guise of AES encryption being adopted by the bank.

The malware requests application permissions linked with the SMS relay, while the next injection on the PC side requests that the victim enter a code appearing on the mobile device – connecting the infected PC and the mobile handset. Once installed and deployed BitMo begins hijacking and concealing incoming text messages from the  bank, disabling the phones’ audio alerts, and forwarding the relevant messages to its operators’ drop zones. Bugat’s entrance to the mobile space only demonstrates the increasing use of SMS forwarders as part of Trojan-facilitated fraud.

Although the injection set created by Bugat’s developers, as well as the distribution mechanism designed for delivering APKs/BlackBerry OS BitMo apps are indeed sophisticated, the actual malware apps are rather basic and show no innovation. That being said, it is very clear that all banking Trojans, both commercial and privately operated codes, are increasingly making use of SMS forwarders in their criminal operation.

Phishing Attacks per Month

RSA identified 36,966 phishing attacks launched worldwide in May, marking a 37% increase in attack volume. Trending data shows that a rise in phishing attacks typically occurs in Q2.

Number of Brands Attacked

In May, 351 brands were targeted in phishing attacks, marking a 13% increase. Two new entities suffered their first attack in May.

US Bank Types Attacked

U.S. nationwide banks maintained the highest volume of phishing in May while regional banks saw a 7% increase in phishing volume, from 12% to 19%. Since February, the attack volumes targeting regional banks and credit unions have fluctuated quite a bit.

Top Countries by Attack Volume

The U.S. remained the country most targeted by phishing in May, absorbing 50% of the total phishing volume. The UK held steady, once again recording 11%  of attack volume. South Africa, the Netherlands, Canada, Australia, and India accounted for about one-quarter of attack volume.

Top Countries by Attacked Brands

U.S. brands remained the most targeted by phishing among worldwide brands, absorbing 30% of phishing volume in May. UK brands were targeted by one-tenth of phishing volume followed by India, China and Brazil.

Top Hosting Countries

The U.S. remained the top hosting country in May, hosting 47% of global phishing attacks. Germany was the second top hosting country with 8% of attacks hosted within the country, followed by the UK, the Netherlands, France, and Canada.

See Previous 3 months of RSA Online Fraud Report Summaries:

  • The RSA April 2013 Online Fraud Report Summary here.
  • The RSA March 2013 Online Fraud Report Summary here.
  • The RSA February 2013 Online Fraud Report Summary here.

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RSA’s December Online Fraud Report 2012 including an excellent piece on Ransomware

RSA’s December Online Fraud Report delivers the results from RSA’s fraud monitoring centre, a summary of their report is below. 

Ransomware is a type of Trojan/malware that can lock files on an infected machine and restrict access to the computer unless the user pays a “ransom” for the restrictions to be removed

Infection campaigns and methods used by Ransomware are identical to those used for any other malware/Trojan infection. For example, recent Ransomware campaigns infected users via the Blackhole exploit kit; another campaign relied on drive-by-downloads via malicious tags in news sites and forums. 

Ransomware campaigns can take on a variety of forms. One of the most common scams is using fake anti-virus programs, making a user believe their computer is infected with unwanted software that can only be removed by purchasing the attacker’s special anti-virus program. However, Ransomware campaigns can take on a number of forms including bogus messages from law enforcement or even a recent example in Australia where a medical clinic’s patient records were targeted unless the clinic paid the attackers $4,200. 

Although victims are promised their files will be unlocked once they pay the “fine”, in most cases the botmaster cannot control the infected bot and the files/computer will remain locked (depending on the malware’s function). 

In order for criminals to remain untraceable, Ransomware payments must be kept anonymous and these Trojans’ operators prefer prepaid payment cards/vouchers (available at retail locations in the US, Europe and now in Arabic-speaking countries as well). It appears that Ransomware is a flourishing business in the cybercrime arena since this type of malware has been proliferating, and attack numbers are on the rise. Ransomware is so popular that although this Winlock type malware can come as a standalone piece, nowadays it is often coupled with other Trojan infections to add monetization schemes to new and existing botnets. Ransom components are sold as ‘plugins’ for some of the well-known banking Trojans including Citadel, Carberp, ICE IX, Zeus, and SpyEye. 

New commercial Ransomware

A recent variant analyzed by RSA researchers revealed a new type of Ransomware, dubbed “Multi-Locker” by its operators. This malware appears to be a commercial creation, destined for sale to cybercriminals interested in launching infection campaigns to spread it. The Multi-Locker ransom and botnet administration control panel were written by a Russian-speaking blackhat, based on a peer’s existing code (the “Silent locker” Trojan). Much like other known Ransomware codes, the malware comes with adapted HTML lock pages designed to appear per each user’s IP address’ geo-location. The pages display in the corresponding language, naming the local national police and demanding ransom in the local currency ($/€/£/other) via prepaid cards/vouchers available in that country.

Multi-Locker is available to cybercriminals through a vendor in underground fraud communities. The malware was announced in the underground in the beginning of October 2012 and offered for sale at USD $899 per kit. In the ad, the vendor guarantees the locking of files on Windows-based machines running any version of Windows, from 2003 to Windows 8. 

Most ransom Trojans to date have been designed to accept prepaid cards or vouchers issued in the US and Europe. Multi-Locker’s vendors are adding their research regarding prepaid media used in Arabic-speaking countries and assure buyers that they will enrich their knowledge to enable them to easily cash out the funds at the end of the line. 

Multi-locker Botnet and control panel

Unlike the majority of ransom Trojans, the Multi-Locker Ransomware was designed with a main point of control that can manage some of the activity of infected bots. The basic control interface shows botmasters some basic statistics such as the total number of bots on that botnet and the payments that come in from each bot. The botnet interface parses each payment made according to the prepaid card type the victim provides.

The panel also displays the botnet’s conversion rate (how many successful infections/ locks out of the entire campaign) at any given moment by showing the total number of lock pages loaded versus the number of bots (that ratio hovering around 20%). 

New features coming soon: DNS-Locker

The most interesting module this Trojan offers is apparently yet to come: DNS Internet Locker. The DNS Locker will be a restriction that will take over the Internet browser, forcing to only display the Ransomware Operator’s HTML lock page, demanding payment for the browser to be released. 

The vendor is very boastful about having researched solutions online and having found none that can help infected users find a way to rid their machines from the malware, adding that even starting the computer in sage mode will not remedy the lock, guaranteeing the future DNS Locker will work on even the newest versions of Windows. 

RSA’s Conclusion

Ransomware were first seen coming from Russia 2005-6 and have since evolved in terms of tactics and scope. Ransomware Malware is particularly lucrative to botmasters operating out of Eastern Europe as almost all were written by Russian-Speaking coders and sold by Russian-Speaking vendors in the Fraud Underground.

Ransomware’s success rate may differ in each country/geography, according to the number of users who decide for the unlocking of the PC. Unfortunately the numbers for this type of attack continue to grow as online users are not very aware of the threat and may attempt to resolve the issue on their own by providing payment to the botmasters.

Phishing Attacks per Month

In November, RSA identified 41,834 unique phishing attacks launched worldwide, making a 24% increase in attack volumes from October. The growth in attacks in November is mostly attributed to the online holiday shopping season as fraudsters try to leverage this time of year to lure victims.

Number of Brands Attacked

In November, 284 brands were targeted in phishing attacks, marking a 6% decrease from October. Of the 284 brands attacked 45% endured 5 attacks or less.

US Bank Types Attacked

Nationwide banks continued to be the most targeted by phishing in November, experienced nearly 80% of all attack volumes.

Top Countries by Attack Volume

In November the US was targeted by 42% of total phishing volume. The U.K accounted for 20% of the attack volume, with India emerging as the third most targeted by volume with 7% of all global attacks. India replaced Canada who saw a significant decrease, from 27% of total attack volumes in October to just 4% in November.

Top Countries by Attacked Brands

In November, the countries that featured the greatest number of targeted brands were the U.S. (30%), still leading by a wide margin, followed by the UK with 11%. Though absorbing a relatively small number of attacks in November, Brazilian brands ranked third of the most targeted with 6%, attesting to the diversity of attacked brands in the country.

Top Hosting Countries

Despite a 6% drop in the month prior, the U.S. continues to be the top hosting country for phishing attacks; one out of every two attacks in November was hosted in the U.S. France was the second top host, accounting for 7% of phishing attacks in November, most of which were hosted by a single ISP.

You might also want to read “What will fraud look like in 2013?”

Previous RSA Online Fraud Report Summaries:

  • The RSA November 2012 Online Fraud Report Summary here.
  • The RSA October 2012 Online Fraud Report Summary here.
  • The RSA September 2012 Online Fraud Report Summary here.
  • The RSA August 2012 Online Fraud Report Summary here.
  • The RSA July 2012 Online Fraud Report Summary here.
  • The RSA June 2012 Online Fraud Report Summary here.
  • The RSA April 2012 Online Fraud Report Summary here.
  • The RSA March 2012 Online Fraud Report Summary here.
  • The RSA February 2012 Online Fraud Report Summary here.
  • The RSA January 2012 Online Fraud Report Summary is here.
  • The RSA December 2011 Online Fraud Report Summary is here.
  • The RSA November 2011 Online Fraud Report Summary is here.
  • The RSA October 2011 Online Fraud Report Summary is here.
  • The RSA September 2011 Online Fraud Report Summary is here.

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RSA’s September Online Fraud Report 2012 including a summary of rogue mobile apps

In their September Online Fraud Report RSA reports on the activity of online fraudsters, a summary is below

Threats and risks in today’s mobile app marketplace

In terms of mobile security, some mobile application (app) platforms, such as Apple’s AppStore, are known to employ strict rules to which application developers are obliged to adhere.

Other mobile app platforms, such as Android’s Google Play, are more flexible with regards to mobile apps. While providing application developers with a programming platform that is optimized for convenience and ease-of-entry into the app marketplace, it is these very qualities that have made Android the most heavily targeted mobile operating system, with Android apps by far the most widely used vehicle for spreading mobile malware.

Apps are one of the driving forces behind today’s smartphone market. Their download to mobile phones makes them an attractive new attack vector for cybercriminals along with other mobile phone attributes: the shortened URL, low security awareness among users, and the ease of copying a mobile webpage’s layout for malicious purposes.

This risk extends to the corporate setting with companies increasingly adopting Bring- Your-Own-Device (BYOD) policies, in which employees’ devices double as platforms for both personal and work-related communications. Apps that intercept a mobile user’s email and phone communications for example, may gain access to corporate communications, as well.

Types of Rogue App Payloads

According to a research study on Android malware conducted by the Department of Computer Science at North Carolina State University, 86% of Android mobile-malware payloads are repackaged with legitimate apps and are not standalone, making their detection more difficult. The same study found that many others piggyback on genuine app updates to remain undetected.

The payloads these apps install after being downloaded to a device vary widely, and can include:

  • SMS Sniffers. Apps that covertly collect SMS text messages, including passwords sent to users’ handsets, and forward this information to a remote drop point. Some of these include other stealth features to avoid raising the user’s suspicion, for example, functionality that turns off the alarm sound when new text messages are received and hides all incoming messages
  • Premium dialers. Apps that install themselves on the user’s handset and start dialing phone numbers or sending dummy text messages to premium-rate service numbers. This type of operation requires the setup of a bogus merchant, along with a fraudulent merchant ID through which cybercriminals can collect funds unwittingly siphoned out of user’s accounts. Handset owners would only become aware of the scam when seeing their bill the following month
  • SEO enhancers. Apps that repeatedly access a certain website, or websites, to increase their rankings in search engine’s results
  • Ransomware. Apps that lock a user’s handset and demand payment from users in return for relinquishing control of the mobile device
  • Spyware. Apps that send the attacker or spy (via a remote drop point) information garnered from a victim’s device including GPS data, intercepted calls and text messages, and phone contacts
  • Botnet clients / Bridgeheads. Apps that communicate with a cybercriminal via a command & control (C&C) server. These may be used as infrastructure for further malware downloads, much like ready-made PC botnets whose infected systems await to download banker Trojans or other malware pushed from the C&C server. These payloads act as a bridgehead by giving the perpetrator an initial foothold on the compromised device. The payload opens a port on the device, and listens for new commands issued from the fraudster’s C&C point. Later on, an encrypted payload may be downloaded to the user’s device

Android apps and their exploitation

At the end of H2 2012, Google announced that the number of devices running Android has reached 400 million, representing 59% of the world’s smartphone market. And to date, Android’s open source code platform has led to the publication of over 600,000 mobile apps. Android’s source code is based on the Java programming language, and its ease of use and low publisher entry fee has made it the most widely targeted mobile platform by malware developers, and the most widely attacked by today’s Trojans. The increased risk for Android app users has already led several anti-virus companies to release AV software for Android-run devices.

A Secure Venue for Apps

The official venue for Android applications is called “Google Play” (formerly known as “Android Market”). By default, each handset running Android is configured to exclusively allow the installation of apps downloaded from Google Play, and to block installation of apps downloaded from any other venue. This is to ensure a minimal level of security.

Downloading apps from Google Play provides an extra security benefit to Android users, as the store provides a “Remote Application Removal” feature, which allows apps that are retrospectively identified by Google as being malicious to be removed from relevant users’ handsets.

Another important security feature added to Google Play is “Google Bouncer,” which scans new apps, acting as a gatekeeper to keep out those identified as malicious.

Despite Android’s default Google-Play-only settings, Android users can still choose to install apps from venues other than Google Play by manually changing their devices’ security settings. Aware of the security issues this may raise, Android users are presented with a warning message when selecting this option.

Android App Permissions

As a second security measure, prior to the installation of an Android app on most Android-based OSs, the app requests certain system permissions, all which have to be approved before the app can be installed on the device. Whereas legitimate apps normally request only one or two permissions, rogue apps are known to request a long list of permissions before installing themselves.

Currently, this is the main security obstacle for rogue Android apps, which some Trojan coders have managed to bypass through socially engineered schemes. For example, RSA has previously detected a mobile-malware app (SMS sniffer), which presented itself as security software. The app requested nine different permissions, including permission to boot the handset, change system settings, and send text messages. Unsurprisingly, the app was offered from a standalone domain not affiliated with any app store.

RSA’s Conclusion

Today, the payload app may remain on a device even after the host app (with which it was downloaded) has been removed. This makes initial detection and removal of the app from the app store that proffers it even more crucial.

As with PC-based malware, educating consumers to raise awareness of today’s mobile threats and urging them to take precautions against rogue apps, will be of paramount importance to mitigating mobile threats in years to come.

Phishing Attacks per Month

In August, 49,488 unique phishing attacks were identified by RSA, marking a 17% decrease from July. The bulk of this decrease is a result of fewer phishing campaigns launched against European financial institutions which have accounted for significant spikes in recent months.

Number of Brands Attacked

In August, 290 brands were subject to phishing attacks, marking a 20% increase from July. This considerable increase shows that cybercriminals are expanding their phishing targets wider, to new organizations and new industries not targeted in recent months. More than half of the brands affected by phishing in August were targeted by more than five phishing attacks.

US Bank Types Attacked

In the U.S. financial sector, nationwide banks experienced a 7% decrease in phishing attacks. However, brands in this segment continue to be most targeted by phishing attacks, hit by two out of every three attacks in August.

Top Countries by Attack Volume

In August, the UK continued to get hit by the majority of worldwide phishing attack volume for the sixth consecutive month, accounting for about 70% of all global phishing volume. The U.S. and Canada continued to remain second and third on the list.

Top Countries by Attacked Brands

In August, the U.S., UK and Australia were the top three countries whose brands were most affected by phishing, targeted by 45% of global phishing attacks during the month.

Top Hosting Countries

The U.S. hosted the vast majority of phishing attacks in August with 80%, followed by Canada, the UK and Germany.

Previous RSA Online Fraud Report Summaries:

  • The RSA August 2012 Online Fraud Report Summary here.
  • The RSA July 2012 Online Fraud Report Summary here.
  • The RSA June 2012 Online Fraud Report Summary here.
  • The RSA April 2012 Online Fraud Report Summary here.
  • The RSA March 2012 Online Fraud Report Summary here.
  • The RSA February 2012 Online Fraud Report Summary here.
  • The RSA January 2012 Online Fraud Report Summary is here.
  • The RSA December 2011 Online Fraud Report Summary is here.
  • The RSA November 2011 Online Fraud Report Summary is here.
  • The RSA October 2011 Online Fraud Report Summary is here.
  • The RSA September 2011 Online Fraud Report Summary is here.

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RSA’s August Online Fraud Report 2012 including a summary of Fraud as a Service (FaaS)

In their August Online Fraud Report RSA reports on the activity of online fraudsters, a summary is below.

A five-year retrospect on Fraud as a Service (FaaS) reveals that the types of services sold today have changed very little; the more noticeable changes came in the shape of scalability, service relevancy, higher availability, better deals, customer support and buyer guarantees.

Underground criminals buy and sell goods and services around the clock. The fact that these markets operate online eliminates borders and physical distance, allowing people from different parts of the world to wheel-and-deal and to partner-up in the orchestration of fraud cash-out cycles without ever meeting or speaking on the phone.

What do they sell?

For phishing – scam pages, complex phishing kits and custom kit plugins, spamming services, email databases, junk traffic, SEO poisoning, email cracking tools, spam software, and SMS spoofers, to name a few. After the attacker gathers the spoils, fraudsters can opt to buy the already-harvested databases of phishing attacks or purchase unitary ‘logins’ in an online shop selling compromised data.

For botmasters –  Trojan-related facilitators exploit kits, malware spam, botnets, Trojan kits, HTML injections, customized malicious code, encryption services, bulletproof hosting, pay-per-installs/affiliate infection schemes, plugins, set-up and tech support.

Hardly ever does one fraudster take on the complete fraud cycle; rather, fraudsters opt to partner with more experienced criminals or offer up their own expertise (such as performing in-store pick up of goods obtained with stolen credit card data). Much like real-world crime, each actor ‘gets his hands dirty’ to different extents. Bottom line – the fraudulent transaction is turned into cash in different ways and the profits are shared among those involved.

Those who don’t have any trustworthy connections in the world of fraud find and use transfer and cash-out services. Money mule, cash-out services and Item-drop mules have become ever so popular, that some vendors have already automated them for those who attempt the bulk of transactions each day bot herders and ‘carders’.

Almost all busy criminals today connect with a mule repository operator and have their fraudulent transactions go through the vendor’s mules, receiving a cut of each successful transaction as per a mutual agreement. Some cases of mule-repositories are part of the fraud cycle of one gang.

Recent underground fraud services:-

Hire a “Man-in-the-Middle”

One of the more interesting recent FaaS offers was found in an underground forum, posted by a Russian-speaking member offering his infrastructure for very temporary hire, alongside his own services as a man-in-the-middle facilitator. The botmaster had a few perks for customers who wish to attempt Trojan attacks without having to set up anything whatsoever:

  • Rent the infrastructure – gain access to infected bots
  • Pay to target and harvest – send over a trigger and a Trojan injection and those will be pushed to existing infected bots on the botnet (through a Trojan configuration file update)
  • Pay to attack – the botmaster will facilitate fraudulent transaction attempts using his Trojan’s remote administration access to bots

Buy a Botnet

The vendor behind this offer was also working in collaboration with other cybercriminals, each offering a related service a bot herder would need for the set up and operation of a botnet.

Automated Customer Support

In the recent past, Trojan developers only offered support via live chat using instant messaging services (Jabber, ICQ). A developer could only support a limited number of chats until the burden of supporting his customers became too great and support deteriorated or stopped altogether.

Trojan developers did understand the substantial need for customer/technical support and took pains to find new ways to preserve their customer base. To get an idea about just how ‘real’ customer support has become, take a quick look at this SpyEye vendor’s page. Notice the headers on the page; much like legitimate software companies – they direct users to an FAQ page, an “About SpyEye” section, and provide a detailed web form that can be sent directly to the vendor’s alleged support team, automating the process.

Many of today’s fraud service vendors put strong emphasis on supporting their buyers, offering guarantees and assistance, from the exchange of faulty or invalid cards and access credentials, all the way to providing set-up, tutorials, and tech support to those who have to operate on going online fraud operations (botnets, CC shops, exploits etc.).

One cannot mention excellent cybercrime customer support today without “Citadel” coming to mind. The team developing the Citadel Trojan has long established itself as the new go-to crimeware vendor, well on their way to inheriting the Zeus Trojan market share they built upon. The most unique feature this team offers to botmasters using Citadel is a clever CRM model that supports, tickets, listens and advises members on how to set up and operate their Trojans. The CRM is not optional! All botmasters must join it and pay a fixed monthly fee for their membership.

RSA’s conclusion

A better cybercrime marketplace, much like organized crime in the physical world, increasingly affects the world’s economy by the sheer amounts of money it taxes it every year. The worst part about this dark economy is its faceless, covert nature and thus the hardship in quantifying and understanding the extent of its damage.

Stronger crime economies are a burden on the legitimate economy in hard costs but do not stop there. This large scale clandestine operation also affects crime statistics and touches real-life aspects of law enforcement and the legal system. Due to cybercrime’s global, scattered nature, fighting it often requires internationally coordinated investigations and arrests, further taxing the resources of each nation touched by digital crimes.

Phishing Attacks per Month

Phishing attacks in July increased 14% from June, marking yet another high of 59,406 attacks in a single month. In examining an overall spike in attacks, the bulk of last month’s increase can be attributed to highly targeted phishing campaigns launched against a series of financial institutions in Europe.

Number of Brands Attacked

In July, a total of 242 brands were targeted with phishing attacks, marking a 7% drop from June. As compared to July 2011, last month’s list of phishing targets demonstrates a 25% year-over-year drop in the number of targeted brands.

US Bank Types Attacked

There was very little change in how the U.S. banking sector was targeted by phishing in July. Nationwide banks still continue to be targeted by about three out of every four phishing attacks. This reflects the tendency of cybercriminals to attack larger financial institutions.

Top Countries by Attack Volume

For the fifth consecutive month, the UK was targeted by the highest volume of phishing attacks, followed by the U.S. and Canada. The UK endured 70% of worldwide attacks, its highest portion ever.

Top Countries by Attacked Brands

Although the UK was targeted by 70% of phishing volume in July, the U.S. continues to be the country with the greatest number of targeted brands. Brands in the U.K., Brazil, India, and Australia collectively were targeted by 27% of attacks in July.

Top Hosting Countries

The U.S. hosted 79% of worldwide phishing attacks last month, its highest portion to date according to the RSA Anti-Fraud Command Center. Canada, the UK and Germany accounted for hosting an additional 10% of attacks.

Previous RSA Online Fraud Report Summaries:

  • The RSA July 2012 Online Fraud Report Summary here.
  • The RSA June 2012 Online Fraud Report Summary here.
  • The RSA April 2012 Online Fraud Report Summary here.
  • The RSA March 2012 Online Fraud Report Summary here.
  • The RSA February 2012 Online Fraud Report Summary here.
  • The RSA January 2012 Online Fraud Report Summary is here.
  • The RSA December 2011 Online Fraud Report Summary is here.
  • The RSA November 2011 Online Fraud Report Summary is here.
  • The RSA October 2011 Online Fraud Report Summary is here.
  • The RSA September 2011 Online Fraud Report Summary is here.

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RSA’s March Online Fraud Report

In their March Online Fraud Report RSA reports on the activity of online fraudsters, full summary below.

As well as the usual interesting statistics on fraudulent activity this report sheds light on the changes to the Zeus and Citadel Trojans as cybercriminals “migrating” from one Trojan botnet to another.

FraudAction Research Lab has recently analyzed a Zeus 2.1.0.1 variant downloading an additional Trojan into infected PCs by fetching a Citadel Trojan. RSA is witness to many Zeus botmasters who upgraded and moved up to Ice IX neighborhoods, and now, Citadel infrastructures.

RSA researchers have studied a Zeus 2.1.0.1 variant that runs on infected machines, seconds later calling for a download of an additional Trojan: a Citadel v1.3.2.0 variant. Although the Lab already saw Zeus botnets replaced by Ice IX botnets, this is one of the first instances analyzed of the Trojan calling for a Citadel replacement onto the infected PC.

The addition of a Citadel variant is a little peculiar on one hand because that creates two parallel infections on the same bot. On the other hand, it is quite logical if the botmaster intends to gradually move the botnet to the new domain and work with the Citadel Trojan instead.

GOODBYE ZEUS?

Is Zeus’ time in the cybercrime arena up? That is very possible. Today’s Zeus-based codes can no longer be named “Zeus”. The last real Zeus was, Zeus 2.0.8.9. Even the v2.1.0.1 development was upgraded by someone outside the original team.

Citadel, Ice IX, Odin, and any other code based on the old king’s exposed source code will each have their own name. It’s only a matter of time before botmasters will move away from Zeus to Trojans for which the development of upgrades and new features continue to thrive. We will likely see less of Zeus on the monthly charts – although its offspring will live on.

Phishing Attacks per Month

While 2012 kicked off with an increase of over 40% in global phishing attacks, February marked a 30% drop – with only 21,030 phishing attacks detected. After five consecutive months of being heavily targeted, the UK finally got replaced by the U.S. as the country enduring the most phishing volume.

Number of Brands Attacked

A total of 281 brands were targeted by phishing attacks in February. Of those targeted brands, 53% endured less than five attacks (150 brands) and 47% endured five attacks or more (131 brands).

US Bank Types Attacked

U.S. nationwide brands and regional banks both saw an eight percent increase in phishing attacks in February while credit unions saw a 16% drop in attacks.

Top Countries by Attack Volume

Following five consecutive months during which the UK topped the chart as the country that absorbed the highest volume of phishing, the U.S. topped the chart once again in February with 35% of global phishing volume. Just as surprising, Canada made an unexpected leap. After accounting for only 4% of worldwide attacks in January, Canada accounted for a 27% of the world’s phishing attacks in February.

Top Countries by Attacked Brands

The U.S. and UK remained the countries with the highest number of attacked brands in February with 42%, followed by Australia, India, Italy and Canada who together accounted for 17% of attacked brands.

Top Hosting Countries

The share of phishing attacks hosted by the U.S. dropped significantly this month, falling from 82% in January to 46% in February. In January, six countries accounted for hosting about 90% of global phishing attacks, while in February, we witnessed 17 countries share that same portion of hosting.

See the full report on the RSA website.

Previous RSA Online Fraud Report Summaries:

  • The RSA February 2012 Online Fraud Report Summary here.
  • The RSA January 2012 Online Fraud Report Summary is here.
  • The RSA December 2011 Online Fraud Report Summary is here.
  • The RSA November 2011 Online Fraud Report Summary is here.
  • The RSA October 2011 Online Fraud Report Summary is here.
  • The RSA September 2011 Online Fraud Report Summary is here.

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Botnets: 10 Tough Questions downloadable research

European Network and Information Security Agency
Image via Wikipedia

 As part of the project Botnets: Detection, Measurement, Mitigation & Defence” a series of questions was discussed by internationally renowned experts in the field of botnets between September and November 2010.

This document presents a selection of the most interesting results. The document distills the major issues which need to be understood and addressed by decision-makers in all groups of stakeholders.


Editor: Dr. Giles Hogben
Authors: Daniel Plohmann, Elmar Gerhards-Padilla, Felix Leder

Download the document here

The European Network and Information Security Agency, working for the EU Institutions and Member States. ENISA is the EU’s response to security issues of the European Union. As such, it is the ‘pace-setter’ for Information Security in Europe.

The objective is to make ENISA’s web site the European ‘hub’ for exchange of information, best practices and knowledge in the field of Information Security. This web site is an access point to the EU Member States and other actors in this field.

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